PGT-P stands for Preimplantation Genetic Testing for Polygenic disorders. Polygenic disorders are caused by variants in multiple genes.
LifeView provides a wide array of genetic testing from the standard embryo biopsy. Each of the test categories below has been shown to be industry leading, second to none.
Using DNA information, science can make significant predictions about lifetime disease risk.
This new technology, called polygenic risk prediction, uses AI applied to very large genomic datasets: genomes of up to a million individuals, together with their medical histories. The resulting polygenic risk scores (PRS) are tested in separate validation populations (i.e., people not used in the AI training) to ensure accuracy. This area of research is advancing rapidly, with hundreds of scientific papers published each year on polygenic risk prediction . Widely validated risk predictors now exist for important conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, cancers, schizophrenia, and many more.
The LifeView team are world leaders in this field . In particular, they were the first to publish validation studies which showed that PRS could identify which sibling in a family was most likely to develop a specific disease condition later in life .
LifeView provides detailed genetic health risk information for each of your embryos, including an overall Embryo Health Score (EHS) to help you and your physician prioritize embryos for transfer. Use of this information can lead to significantly lower lifetime disease risk for your child .
It has also been shown that LifeView aneuploidy testing (test for chromosomal abnormality) increases the chances of a successful pregnancy. In particular, it helps avoid the transfer of (abnormal) embryos that are unlikely to implant, and also avoids incorrect categorization of healthy embryos as aneuploid (abnormal). A study of almost 3000 embryos found that aneuploidy screening with LifeView led to a pregnancy success rate per IVF cycle of 66 percent, compared to rates as low as 38 percent when competing, older testing methods (NGS) for PGT-A were used , and with a miscarriage rate less than half the older testing methods (NGS).
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Most of the data used to build genomic predictors (PRS) comes from individuals of European ancestry. Validation studies have shown that these predictors perform less well when applied to individuals from distant ancestry groups (e.g., African ancestry, East Asian ancestry). LifeView collaborates with research teams that have access to large genomic datasets covering all major ancestry groups. Through these collaborations we are continuously improving and testing all of the genomic predictors that we offer to patients.
LifeView carefully evaluates the performance of each predictor in major ancestry groups and only reports the PRS results that have been validated in the ancestry group closest to that of a specific patient. Results for a specific disease condition are never reported unless there is strong statistical evidence for benefit to the ancestry group of a specific patient.
Our PGT-P test is entirely new and unique. No other test in history has ever offered anything like PGT-P. It is the first test to provide Polygenic Risk Scores for an embryo. PGT-P has only recently been made possible by progress on the cutting edge of scientific advance.
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) provides a pertinent bioethical framework which serves to guide testing of human embryos. ASRM and SART do not distinguish between monogenic and polygenic disease risk. There is a formal bioethics position on this general subject, recently updated in 2018, written by the Ethics Committee of ASRM.
A key phrase from the paper:
"PGD for adult-onset conditions is ethically justified when the condition is serious and no safe, effective interventions are available. It is ethically allowed for conditions of lesser severity or penetrance. The Committee strongly recommends that an experienced genetic counselor play a major role in counseling patients considering such procedures."
A salient example is the case of breast cancer susceptibility. Many locations in the human genome affect the polygenic trait of “Breast Cancer Risk”. The example which the bioethicists focus upon in the paper is the BRCA1 gene.
The presence of a correctly identified BRCA1 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant increases the risk that an individual will develop cancer but the risk is not 100%. Rather, this is a single SNP, affecting a highly polygenic trait, Breast Cancer Risk.
The ASRM Ethics Committee deliberates that the benefit of reduced cancer risk is difficult to simply compare to the potential negatives induced by PGT (damage to/destruction of the embryo, incorrect genotyping resulting in transfer of an embryo with BRCA1, etc), and must be weighed in consultation with a genetic counselor.
However, PGT for BRCA1 is ultimately inferred to be ethically permissible. PGT-M for BRCA1 is practiced among members of SART, but not yet using a comprehensive, polygenic panel for the Breast Cancer Risk, PGT-P.
More generally, we adhere to the ASRM guidelines for moving innovation to practice.
No, we only provide risk scores for polygenic traits related to diseases, not for purely cosmetic traits such as hair color and eye color. Our goal is to provide improved health to IVF families.
Previously known as PGS, testing to determine whether chromosome count is normal. By combining copy number and genotyping data, LifeView provides the most accurate, highest resolution prediction of chromosomal abnormalities in IVF than older testing methods (NGS).
LifeView’s fewer false positives means more embryos available for transfer. LifeView’s fewer false negatives means embryos that are transferred will implant with higher likelihood, and miscarryless frequently. We have shown significantly better outcomes on these three metrics than other labs: less than half the normal miscarriage rate, and almost twice the normal pregnancy rate per cycle. 
Sometimes known as PGD, testing for single-gene disorders where there is a family history. An example of PGT-M is screening against Cystic Fibrosis.
Combining linkage-based analysis of several hundred markers with direct testing of the mutation, LifeView provides the fastest, most cost effective, and accurate PGT-M method. Accuracy exceeds 99.9%. 
Sometimes known as chromosomal PGD, testing for translocations and inversions. LifeView PGT-SR provides more than 5 times the resolution of older testing methods (NGS), and the ability to distinguish between balanced translocation carrier and truly normal embryos for our patients. When other labs using the older methods reject cases, they send them to us. Our accuracy exceeds 99%. 
The LifeView laboratory process uses DNA samples from both parents(saliva) and the embryo (standard few-cell biopsy) to obtain a 99+percent accurate genotype. This accuracy has been carefully validated and has been published in peer reviewed scientific journals , and exceeds the adult accuracy given by common tests like 23andme.
Using this genotype, future disease risks are predicted for each embryo, using methods validated to predict disease state in the adult.
This new technology, called polygenic risk prediction, uses AI applied to very large genomic datasets: genomes of up to a million individuals, together with their medical histories. There sulting polygenic risk scores (PRS) are tested in separate validation populations (i.e., people not used in the AI training) to ensure accuracy. This area of research is advancing rapidly, with hundreds of scientific papers published each year on polygenic risk prediction . Widely validated risk predictors now exist for important conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, cancers, schizophrenia, and many more.
The LifeView team are world leaders in this field . In particular, they were the first to publish validation studies which showed that PRS could identify which sibling in a family was most likely to develop a specific disease condition later in life.
Embryos are ranked in order of proposed transfer. Sibling selection using our ranking has been validated to reduce disease incidence.  Each disease incidence reduction is particular to that disease, to the ethnicity of the cohort, and the number of embryos.  The disease risk reduction is concurrent - which is to say that ranking the embryos based on a single, aggregate number (the Embryo Health Score) has been shown to reduce the diseases at the same time, in parallel.
Our position on the ethics, efficacy, and science of PGT-A:
Previously known as PGS, testing to determine if the correct chromosome numberis in the embryo (explained here).
By combining copy number and genotyping data, LifeView provides the most accurate and highest resolution prediction of chromosomal abnormalities in the industry. Fewer false positives means more embryos available for transfer.
Sometimes known as chromosomal PGD, testing for translocations and inversions.
LifeView PGT-SR provides more than 5 times the resolution of NGS based testing and the ability to distinguish between balanced translocation carrier and truly normal embryos for our patients.
Sometimes known as PGD, testing for all single-gene disorders when there is a family history.
⦿ Cystic Fibrosis
⦿ Huntington's disease
⦿ Our test is universal, covering all known monogenic diseases.
Copies of previous genetic testing results are required. Saliva samples from other family members may be required. Our genetic counselor and laboratory director will review your case and determine if testing is possible.
Rapid workups and broader accommodation of difficult cases means faster time to pregnancy for prospective patients.
By combining linkage-based analysis of several hundred marker swith direct testing of the mutation, LifeView PGT-M provides the most convenient, cost effective, and accurate method available.
⦿ Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
⦿ Breast Cancer, Testicular Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Malignant Melanoma, Basal Cell Carcinoma
⦿ Coronary Artery Disease, Heart Attack, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension